The shores of many German and alpine lakes are subject to significant structural impairments. Shore constructions (e.g., bank reinforcements, harbours) and diverse lake utilizations (e.g. ship traffic) lead to changes of the hydrodynamic conditions in the shallow littoral zone affecting the sediment transport and balance (erosion/accumulation), the submerged vegetation (macrophytes) and benthic invertebrates (macro-invertebrates).
Only little is known about the underlying processes between shore constructions that modify the hydrodynamic conditions on the one hand, and the biocoenotic composition of the littoral zone on the other hand. For this reason, the local authorities have a great interest in strategies that improve the ecological status (e.g. dismantling of bank reinforcements and renaturation) to harmonize between the various demands and the protection and conservation objectives (e.g., Natura 2000, WFD) in the littoral zone of lakes.
Moreover, in many alpine lakes have seen increased erosion of littoral sediments in the littoral zone. Particularly affected are archaeological underwater monuments (pile dwellings) designated as UNESCO World Heritage “Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps”.